When you use a landlubber's map
Excuse me .... aren't we OCEAN navigators? Don't we use nautical charts exclusively? Why do we concern ourselves with TOPOGRAPHIC maps? I'll answer that by saying Yes, No, and read on.
When you read the manuals accompanying a GPS unit, they tend to focus on the coordinate system of latitude and longitude. They may well mention 'other' coordinate systems but their thrust is for the most widely used one familiar to the mariner ... latitude and longitude, which matches the coordinate system of nautical charts.
There are times, however, when we mariners use topographic charts with another coordinate system such as UTM. UTM, or Universal Transverse Mercator, is common to topographic maps produced by the US Department of the Interior Geological Survey. It is the coordinate system every soldier learns in map reading classes since military maps use this system. Few mariners I've met are aware of the existence of such a coordinate system, and even fewer know how to use the system, especially with a GPS.
This was brought to my attention on our arrival in Palau and the discovery that nautical chart coverage of this area is extremely poor and the charts that do exist are fraught with errors. Widely used by the mariners here are topographic maps. While these do not always show water depths and hazards, making 'eyeball navigation' a necessity, their accuracy and detail of the numerous islands make them extremely useful and much better than their nautical cousins. But these maps use the UTM coordinate system and, though a few cross-reference points to latitude and longitude are marked on the maps, it's difficult to correlate a latitude/longitude position with a position on the UTM map.
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)
But what is UTM? Basically it's a coordinate system with a 1,000 meter grid square overlaying a topographic map (which from my basic military training over 44 years ago was defined as "a graphical representation of a portion of the earth's surface"). A point on the map is represented by two groups of digits, the first equal to the number of meters to the right of the origin and the second equal to the number of meters up from the origin. It is further defined by preceding that group with a zone number and letter designation for delineating a sub-zone. So my position as I write this would be fully described as 53N 0438403-0808235. This corresponds to a latitude-longitude position of N07deg18.789min-E134deg26.639min. There is no simple conversion technique between the two coordinate systems but the GPS (if it's worth is salt) is usable as readily for topographic maps as it is for nautical charts.
A set of UTM coordinates is used or plotted with the convention of "reading right, then up". The first group of digits define a point on the map reading to the RIGHT (similar to the longitude scale east of Greenwich) and the next group reading UP (similar to the latitude scale in the northern hemisphere). The convention of RIGHT THEN UP is universally applied regardless of the side of the equator or Greenwich you are on.
It's quite unlike the latitude-longitude system which has increasing quantities going away (up or down on the chart) from the equator and either east or west (left or right on the chart) of Greenwich. Later I'll describe the UTM plotting technique in detail.
Programming the GPS
The legend on a topographic map gives the information needed to program a GPS for use with the map. As an example, I am using a topographic map of Oreor, in the Republic of Palau, Caroline Islands. The legend says, among other things, that it is based on UTM and Guam Datum 1963. These are the two essential items of information needed to enter into the GPS in order to obtain UTM readouts.
Not all GPS units have the selection you need, so looking for this feature before buying is advisable. The Garmin models going back to the Garmin 45 do have the selections you need. My older Micrologic Explorer doesn't - it only displays latitude and longitude.
My Garmin GPSII+, however, has twelve grid position selections: three for latitude and longitude (different formats), and nine other grid selections (UTM/UPS, User Grid, Taiwan Grid, Swiss Grid, Swedish Grid, Maidenhead, Irish Grid, German Grid, and British Grid). So for my case I select "UTM/UPS".
The Datum of "Guam 1963" is one of 107 datum selections in my Garmin GPS (another is the familiar WGS84). So with the two necessary selections entered in the Navigation portion of the System Menu, I obtain position locations displayed on the GPS in UTM format, allowing direct plotting on my topographic map.
Plotting with UTM coordinates
On a topographic map using UTM coordinates and a 1,000 meter grid, the lettered sub-zones are 10,000,000 meters (6,213.7 stature miles) on each side of the square. The grid lines, spaced 1,000 meters apart, are labeled within each lettered sub-zone from 0 to 9,999. For ease of reading and using the map, the grid lines are labeled with abbreviated numbers. The last three digits are omitted (these are the number of meters up to 999 between the grid lines) and the significant digits preceding the fourth and fifth significant digit are labeled in superscript. For example, the 1:25,000 map of Oreor, Republic of Palau, has labels along the vertical axis such as 808, 809, 810, etc. These correspond to actual grid lines of 0808, 0809, 0810, etc. Likewise, the horizontal axis is labeled 438, 439, 440, etc., corresponding to actual grid lines of 0438, 0439, 040, etc.
A position of 53N 0438910 0810700 is plotted
by finding the point 910 meters to the RIGHT of the grid line labeled 438
and 700 meters UP from the grid line labeled 810. An example
of plotting this position will follow.
Valhalla's Plotting Device
To find the number of meters between grid lines, a plotting instrument is very convenient and these were (and probably still are) in use by the military. They allow direct reading for interpolation between the grid lines. Different scales match the map in use, such as 1:25,000, 1:50,000, etc.
Lacking one of the production devices,
you can make one by copying mine. The figure shows the layout (to scale).
Using transparency film (available from any office supply store
for either printers or copiers) make a photocopy of this figure. Either
cut out the inner square or drill a small hole, big enough for a pencil
point, at the circle labeled "Plotting Point". Note that the scales are
reversed, which makes plotting in the upper right hand corner easy - simply
move the device to the right and up the number of meters beyond the grid
lines on the map.
PLOTTING DEVICE FOR
UTM 1:25,000 TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS
(SIDES OF INNER SQUARE = 40 MILIMETERS)
Using the Plotting Device
This is an example of using the plotting
device to plot the position 53N 0438910 0810700. Remember to read RIGHT
But what about on land?
Since that's what UTM was designed for you're in great shape. In addition to using the GPS for cruising here in Palau, as we hike over the islands we have found the handheld GPS to be quite useful. After 14 years since the topographic maps of Palau were printed, there have been some changes that make finding the trails, caves, and other interesting historical sites difficult without the benefit of a GPS that can display UTM coordinates.
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